by The Welthi Bureau 24th Jan, 2020
Owing to the complex functionalities, there are numerous types of cardiac surgeries been performed to treat chronic & perilous ailments. Giving his note, Dr. A N Patnaik, Senior Consultant Cardiologist, Star Hospitals, said, “the advancement in technology is one of the significant factor that has enabled the healthcare industry to save more precious lives across the world”.
Here are the excerpts from his interview on Types of Cardiac Surgeries.
BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY / STENT PROCEDURE
When the block in the coronary artery [the artery which gives blood to the heart muscles] is removed by a balloon and a stent is inserted, it is called Balloon Angioplasty or a Stent Operation. This cannot be considered as a full-fledged surgery. However, it is a simple procedure with only a few minor complications. Patient will be awake during the procedure. Unlike Bypass Surgery, patient can be discharged and leave the hospital in 1 or 2 days after the operation.
In case of multiple blocks in the cardiac arteries, blood vessels drawn from the legs or the internal mammary artery (an artery that normally supplies the chest area) are used as substitutes (grafts) to supply blood to the heart through a new route, and this is known as Bypass Surgery or Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG). It is slightly risky but a skilled cardiac surgery team can perform with minimal complications. Patient needs stay about a week in the hospital for this surgery.
WHO CAN UNDERGO BYPASS SURGERY?
It is performed when there are blocks in the main artery supplying blood to the heart, or when there are multiple blocks in the important arteries of the heart, or when the efficiency of pumping by the heart reduces. It can also be performed on patients suffering from Diabetes. In fact Diabetic patients suffer more often from this disease.
OPEN HEART SURGERY
During Bypass, the surgeon reaches the heart by splitting the breast bone. However, doctors would find it hard to operate when the heart is beating. To keep it in a state of rest for some time, while still maintaining supply of blood to different parts of the body, a heart-lung machine is used. This procedure is called Open Heart Surgery.
CLOSED HEART SURGERY
Surgery in which the heart-lung machine is not used during operation is called Closed Heart Surgery. Usually, this type of surgery is done when the mitral valve is operated on.
BEATING HEART SURGERY
It is also called Off Pump Surgery. Even for this type of procedure, the breast bone is split, and the surgery is performed while the heart is beating normally. However, a tool called Octopus is used to keep the area immobile where the surgery is being performed.
MINIMALLY INVASIVE CARDIAC SURGERY
In the last few years, modern techniques were used to perform heart surgeries. Bypass surgeries performed with just a small incision is one among the newer techniques. In this procedure, there is no need of splitting the breast bone. However, anaesthesia needs to be administered.
In this procedure, the blood vessels from the leg or the internal mammary artery are not taken through a deep incision, but merely by piercing a small hole, to enable faster recovery of the patient.
In some cases, patients become critical while performing a Bypass Surgery, and then some blood vessels are fixed through Angioplasty and a few in the Bypass mode, to reduce life threat to the patient. This will help the patient to recover fast. Mixing various procedures during operation is called Hybrid Bypass Surgery.
ROBOTIC BYPASS SURGERY
As the name suggests, doctors take the help of robots to perform this surgery. The entire procedure is done through a very small hole. Doctors cannot move their fingers easily in the small hole and so they use the thin fingers of the robots with complete control over them.
Book Appointment: Dr. A N Patnaik, Senior Consultant Cardiologist, Star Hospitals
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