by The Welthi Bureau, October 9th, 2021
Hypertension, better known as high blood pressure, has been called a silent killer because most people don’t recognize they have it, since there are generally no symptoms or warning signs. Blood pressure is a measure of how hard the blood pushes against the walls of your arteries as it moves through your body. Any factor that increases pressure against the artery walls can lead to elevated blood pressure. The build-up of fatty deposits in your arteries (atherosclerosis) can lead to high blood pressure. When blood pressure is high, it starts to damage the blood vessels, heart and kidneys, which can lead to stroke, heart attack and kidney failure. It’s estimated that 1 in 3 adults has high blood pressure. And most of the time, the cause is unknown and often referred to as essential hypertension or primary hypertension says Dr. Jyothsna Guttikonda,Consultant Nephrologist, Star Hospital
RISK FACTORS OF HYPERTENSION
Being overweight or obese: The greater your body mass, the more blood you need to supply oxygen and nutrients to your tissues. As the amount of blood going through your blood vessels increases, so does the force on your artery walls.
Gender: Elevated blood pressure is more common in men than in women up to the age of 55 years. Women are more likely to develop high blood pressure after the age of 55 years.
Family History of High Blood Pressure: If a first-degree relative, such as a parent or sibling, has high blood pressure, you're more likely to develop elevated blood pressure.
Sedentary Lifestyle: Being physically inactive or not exercising can cause weight gain and increase your risk of elevated blood pressure.
Diet High in Salt (sodium) or Low in Potassium: Sodium and potassium are two key nutrients in the way your body regulates your blood pressure. If you have too much sodium or too little potassium in your diet, you're more likely to have Hypertension.
Ill Health Practices: Smoking cigarettes, chewing tobacco or being around others who smoke (second-hand smoke) can increase your blood pressure. Alcohol consumption is also been associated with elevated blood pressure, particularly in men.
Certain Chronic Conditions: Kidney disease, diabetes, adrenal diseases, thyroid disease and sleep apnea among others can increase the risk of elevated blood pressure.
Certain Medications — including birth control pills, cold remedies, decongestants, over-the-counter pain relievers and some prescription drugs can also cause blood pressure to rise temporarily.
CORRELATION OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE AND KIDNEY DISEASE
1. High blood pressure is one of the leading causes of CKD. Over time, high blood pressure can damage blood vessels throughout your body. This can reduce the blood supply to important organs like kidneys. It damages the tiny filtering units in your kidneys. As a result, the kidneys may stop removing wastes and extra fluid from your blood. The extra fluid in your blood vessels may build up and raise blood pressure even more.
2. High blood pressure can also be a complication of CKD. Kidneys play an important role in keeping your blood pressure in a healthy range. Diseased kidneys are less likely to help regulate your blood pressure; Hence, it can implicitly lead to Hypertension.
LIST OF KIDNEY DISEASES WHICH CAN CAUSE HYPERTENSION
Diabetic Kidney Disease: Diabetes can damage your kidneys' filtering system, which can lead to high blood pressure.
Polycystic Kidney Disease: In this inherited condition, cysts in your kidneys prevent the kidneys from working normally and can raise blood pressure.
Glomerular Disease: Your kidneys filter waste and sodium using microscopic filters called glomeruli that can sometimes become swollen. If the swollen glomeruli can't work normally, you may develop high blood pressure.
Renovascular Hypertension: This type is caused by narrowing (stenosis) of one or both arteries leading to your kidneys and often caused by the same type of fatty plaques that can damage your coronary arteries (atherosclerosis) or a separate condition in which the muscle and fibrous tissues of the renal artery wall thicken and harden into rings (fibromuscular dysplasia).
Renal Calculus Disease: High risk with uric acid and calcium stone formers.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is both a common cause of hypertension and CKD is also a complication of uncontrolled hypertension. Any person diagnosed with hypertension need to be evaluated for kidney disease with complete urine exam and serum creatinine to asses kidney function (GFR).
It is important to screen for hypertension in all adults and recognise the cause of hypertension and treat them as it significantly reduces complications. Blood pressure is usually checked by using a blood pressure cuff around your arm. It should be checked every time you visit your doctor or clinic. You may also be taught to check your own blood pressure at home. In addition to home BP monitoring, it is advisable to check 24-Hour Ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) which allows better assessment of the diurnal variation in BP. Controlling hypertension in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not only slows progression of renal damage but reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Blood Pressure (BP) control in CKD can be achieved with a combination of antihypertensive medications as well as lifestyle modifications such as dietary salt restriction and weight loss.
The Department of Nephrology at Star Hospital offers top-notch medical services and uses cutting-edge techniques for diagnosis and treatment. Our mission is to deliver high-value patient centered care, stimulate innovative research, and train future nephrologists. To augment our services better, we have our service units equipped with the latest technology and infrastructure. We treat every kidney disease and condition, helping our patients live with a higher quality of life no matter the severity of their disease.
Book Appointment: Dr. Jyothsna Guttikonda,Consultant Nephrologist, Star Hospital
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