by The Welthi Bureau | 11 DEC 2017
India has the world’s largest number of tuberculosis cases, around 26% of the worlds TB cases, followed by China and South Africa. Extra pulmonary TB (EPTB) constitutes nearly 10-20% of cases of TB. Abdominal TB is one of the most common types of EPTB.
Abdominal Tuberculosis means involvement of any abdominal organ by tuberculosis. Abdominal Tuberculosis can involve intestine especially the ileocecal region(terminal part of small intestine) lymph nodes, peritoneum (lining of abdominal cavity) and less commonly the liver, pancreas, spleen. Patients usually present with colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, fever explained Dr Moka Praneeth, senior gastroentrologist at Maxcure Group of Hospitals in Hyderabad.
Q1. What are the reasons for abdominal tuberculosis in India? Which age-group? One of the factors is malnutrition and is it that apart from children there are adults also who suffer from the same?
Ans 1. India has the highest burden of tuberculosis cases, including pulmonary TB. Under nutrition, slum dwelling, indoor air pollution are risk factors for pulmonary TB. Abdominal Tuberculosis can affect any age group. Malnutrition is one of the risk factors but not the only factor predisposing for TB. Adults are also very commonly diagnosed with TB.
Q2. Is AB TB identified early?
Ans 2. Abdominal TB can be identified early if the patients present early to a gastroenterologist. It is not difficult to detect. Clinical features, imaging modalities, Colonoscopy & Ascites fluid analysis are commonly needed for diagnosis.
Q3. How does it affect the person?
Ans 3. Abdominal TB is acquired either by swallowing of infected sputum or hematogenous dissemination from a focus of pulmonary TB or spread from adjacent organs. Patients present with abdominal pain and vomiting, fever and weight loss.
Q4. What are the complications that can develop if not treated properly or not even diagnosed properly? Is there a lot of under diagnosis of this disease?
Ans 4. Complications of abdominal TB include recurrent bowel obstruction, ascites. Under diagnosis and over diagnosis are common, can be dangerous especially if a specialist (gastroenterologist’s) opinion is not taken.
Q5. . Which is the category that is vulnerable to this disease?
Ans 5. Malnourished patients, HIV-infected patients, patients receiving immunosuppressant’s are especially prone to this disease several patients often are diagnosed with abdominal TB, even in the absence of these predisposing factors.
Q6. How must it be treated and is there a chance of recurrence? Can it be fatal too?
Ans 6. There are effective drugs to treat this disease. Those drugs (anti tubercular treatment) are prescribed for 6-9 months with periodic follow up during treatment. Cure must be ascertained at the end of treatment. There is a chance of recurrence but it is low if precautions are taken.
Some cases of abdominal TB can be fatal, especially if the presentation is late.
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