by Muskaan Mehta | 04 JAN 2018
World Health Organisation has pre-qualified Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine by Bharat Biotech as it was found to have longer lasting immunity than older vaccines and also required few doses for childhood immunization.
What is typhoid?
Typhoid is caused by contamination of food and water by bacteria salmonella typhi. It is causes fever, rashes and also headaches.
How does it occur?
Eating of contaminated food and water. Street food is the major culprit where it has been found that food prepared in unhygienic conditions where the food handlers are not following proper hygiene conditions.
Less hand washing and also direct contact of hand with food and water allows the bacteria to transfer from one place to another.
Why the vaccine?
WHO states that there are a total of 11 to 20 million people who suffer from typhoid globally. The annual deaths are recorded at 1,28,000 globally.
The highest burden of the disease is in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Africa and South East Asian countries.
The salmonella typhi has developed antibiotic resistance and due to this reason the treatment for typhoid is becoming very aggressive. The clinical trials have shown that the use of Typbar TCV has helped in slowing down the effect of antibiotic resistance and also helped in cure.
The vaccine can be administered in infants from 6 months to 23 months of age. In children from 2 to 15 years of age.
The clinical trials in all stages have shown good results.
What does pre-qualification mean?
Pre-qualification will allow the United Nations Agencies like UNICEF and GAVI to procure the vaccine and use it for children.
The need for the vaccine for prevention: Urbanisation and climate change are going to increase the global burden of the disease. Overcrowded cities and inadequate sanitation facilities have allowed for the spread of the bacteria. During rainy season and cyclonic conditions, flooding of the cities have become a common feature due to which the sewage water is found to seep inside homes adding to the risk and also the burden of the disease.
How does the vaccine protect?
The vaccine works as a protection mode whereby the severity of the disease is limited and also helps to fight the antibiotic resistance whereby the first and second line of antibiotics are also found to work to fight typhoid.
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